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Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
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https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2019-90
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2019-90
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 09 Dec 2019

Submitted as: research article | 09 Dec 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Wind Energy Science (WES).

Proposal for Generic Characterization of Electrical Test Benches for AC- and HVDC-Connected Wind Power Plants

Behnam Nouri1, Ömer Göksu1, Vahan Gevorgian2, and Poul Ejnar Sørensen1 Behnam Nouri et al.
  • 1Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde 4000, Denmark
  • 2National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA

Abstract. The electrical test and assessment of wind turbines (WT) are going hand in hand with standards and network connection requirements. In this paper, the latest developments in the testing of the electrical characteristics of WTs, including IEC standards, compliance test methods, and industrial test benches, are studied. In this paper, the general structure of advanced electrical test benches, including grid emulator or controllable grid interface (CGI), wind torque emulator and device under test (DUT), has been proposed to harmonize the available industrial test sites. The AC and HVDC transmission systems impose different electrical characteristics on wind power plants (WPP). HVDC connection leads to a converter-based grid, yet AC connection has different grid characteristics in terms of grid impedance, short circuit ratio (SCR), inertia, and background harmonics. Therefore, this paper recommends performing compliance tests in two divisions as AC- and HVDC-connected WTs using a converter-based CGI and emulate the corresponding AC grid for DUT. Also, this paper recommends the additional tests for the current version of IEC 61400-21-1. The additional tests consist of test options for new features of modernWTs, such as Grid-forming, system restoration, and black start capabilities, as well as emulation of different grid characteristics, such as detailed power system, inertia, SCR, and different grid connection emulations for DUT. This way, the possibility of research, development, and demonstration studies on WTs and WPPs would increase. The proposed additional tests can be implemented using the available advanced test benches by adjusting their control systems. Since most of the industrial test benches are based on converters, the characteristics of a real power system can be emulated by a CGI coupled with real-time digital simulator (RTDS) systems through high-bandwidth power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) interface.

Behnam Nouri et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
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Behnam Nouri et al.
Behnam Nouri et al.
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Short summary
In this paper, the authors wish to extend the international harmonization efforts towards test methods and propose additional test options to the standard tests. In this way, the generic topology of industrial test benches and the IEC recommended tests for wind turbines are investigated. Also, the additional test options regarding new features of WTs are proposed. The proposed additional tests can be implemented using the available advanced test benches by adjusting their control systems.
In this paper, the authors wish to extend the international harmonization efforts towards test...
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