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Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
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Discussion papers
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research articles 27 May 2019

Research articles | 27 May 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Wind Energy Science (WES).

Ancillary services from wind turbines: AGC from a single Type 4 turbine

Eldrich Rebello, David Watson, and Marianne Rodgers Eldrich Rebello et al.
  • Wind Energy Institute of Canada, 21741 Route 12 Tignish, PEI C0B 2B0, Canada

Abstract. Wind turbines possess the technical ability to provide various ancillary services to the electrical grid. Several regions have set ambitious targets of providing an increasing share of annual electrical energy from wind and other renewable sources of generation. Despite this, renewable generators such as wind and solar have traditionally not been allowed to provide significant amounts of ancillary services, in part due to the variable and uncertain nature of their electricity generation. Increasing levels of renewable generation, however, continue to displace existing synchronous generation and thus necessitate new sources of ancillary or system services. This work is part of an ongoing project that seeks to provide empirical evidence of how ancillary services can be provided from wind turbines. We focus specifically on providing secondary frequency response (AGC) and demonstrate that wind turbines have the technical capability to provide this service. The algorithms used are intentionally simple so as to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the turbine technology. This work presents results from a single, 800 kW, IEC Type 4 wind turbine. 10 % of rated power is offered on the regulation market. We do not separate up- and down-regulation into individual services. Up-regulation is offered through a 5 % constant power curtailment. The AGC update interval is 4 s, to mimic real-world conditions. We use performance scoring methods from the Pennsylvania-Jersey-Maryland (PJM) operator and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada to quantify the wind turbine's response. We use the calculated performance scores, annual site wind data and 2017 PJM market price data to estimate income from providing secondary frequency regulation. In all cases presented, income from the regulation market is greater than the energy income lost due to curtailment.

Eldrich Rebello et al.
Interactive discussion
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Status: open (until 17 Jul 2019)
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Eldrich Rebello et al.
Eldrich Rebello et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
As more electrical energy is generated by wind turbines, older generation technologies such as coal and gas are being displaced. This situation presents a challenge in the sense that the additional services once provided by fossil generators must now be sourced from elsewhere. Our work provided real-world data showing the capabilities of wind generators in providing the specific service of secondary frequency regulation.
As more electrical energy is generated by wind turbines, older generation technologies such as...