Journal cover Journal topic
Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2017-21
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Brief communications
12 May 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Wind Energy Science (WES).
Structural monitoring for lifetime extension of offshore wind monopiles: Can strain measurements at one level tell us everything?
Lisa Ziegler1,2, Ursula Smolka1, Nicolai Cosack1, and Michael Muskulus2 1Ramboll Wind, 20097 Hamburg, Germany
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Abstract. Operators need accurate knowledge on structural reserves to decide about lifetime extension of offshore wind turbines. Load monitoring enables us to directly compare design loads with real loading histories of the support structure in order to calculate its remaining useful lifetime. Monitoring of every hot spot is technically and financially not feasible. This paper presents a novel idea for load monitoring of monopiles. It requires strain measurements at only one level convenient for sensor installation, such as tower bottom. Measurements are converted into damage equivalent loads for 10-minute time intervals. Damage equivalent loads are extrapolated to other locations of the structure with a simulation model and statistical algorithm. For this, structural loads at all locations of the monopile are calculated with aero-hydro-elastic software and updated finite element models. Damage equivalent loads at unmeasured locations are predicted from the simulation results with a k-nearest neighbor regression algorithm. The extrapolation was tested with numerical simulations of an 8 MW offshore wind turbine. Results show that damage can be predicted with an error of 1–3 % if this is done conditional on mean wind speed, which is very promising. The load monitoring concept is simple, cheap and easy to implement. This makes it ideal for better decisions on lifetime extension of monopiles.

Citation: Ziegler, L., Smolka, U., Cosack, N., and Muskulus, M.: Structural monitoring for lifetime extension of offshore wind monopiles: Can strain measurements at one level tell us everything?, Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2017-21, in review, 2017.
Lisa Ziegler et al.
Lisa Ziegler et al.
Lisa Ziegler et al.

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Short summary
The first larger offshore wind farms are now reaching a mature age. Operators have to take actions for monitoring today in order to have accurate knowledge on structural reserves that enables reliable decisions about lifetime extension in the future. Many offshore wind turbines already have one set of strain gauges installed at the transition piece. We present a simple and robust method to extrapolate these measurements to other locations of the monopile without the need of additional sensors.
The first larger offshore wind farms are now reaching a mature age. Operators have to take...
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