Journal cover Journal topic
Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2016-58
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research articles
12 May 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Wind Energy Science (WES).
Wind farms providing secondary frequency regulation: Evaluating the performance of model-based receding horizon control
Carl R. Shapiro1, Johan Meyers2, Charles Meneveau1, and Dennice F. Gayme1 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Abstract. We investigate the use of wind farms to provide secondary frequency regulation for a power grid using a model-based receding horizon control framework. In order to enable real-time implementation, the control actions are computed based on a time-varying one-dimensional wake model. This model describes wake advection and wake interactions, both of which play an important role in wind farm power production. In order to test the control strategy, it is implemented in a large eddy simulation (LES) model of an 84-turbine wind farm using the actuator disk turbine representation. Rotor-averaged velocity measurements at each turbine are used to provide feedback for error correction. The importance of including the dynamics of wake advection in the underlying wake model is tested by comparing the performance of this dynamic-model control approach to a comparable static-model control approach that relies on a modified Jensen model. We compare the performance of both control approaches using two types of regulation signals, "RegA'" and "RegD", which are used by PJM, an independent system operator in the Eastern United States. The poor performance of the static-model control relative to the dynamic-model control demonstrates that modeling the dynamics of wake advection is key to providing the proposed type of model-based coordinated control of large wind farms. We further explore the performance of the dynamic-model control via composite performance scores used by PJM to qualify plants for regulation. Our results demonstrate that the dynamic-model controlled wind farm consistently performs well, passing the qualification threshold for all fast-acting RegD signals. For the RegA signal, which changes over slower time scales, the dynamic-model control leads to average performance that surpasses the qualification threshold, but further work is needed to enable this controlled wind farm to achieve qualifying performance for all regulation signals.

Citation: Shapiro, C. R., Meyers, J., Meneveau, C., and Gayme, D. F.: Wind farms providing secondary frequency regulation: Evaluating the performance of model-based receding horizon control, Wind Energ. Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-2016-58, in review, 2017.
Carl R. Shapiro et al.
Carl R. Shapiro et al.
Carl R. Shapiro et al.

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Short summary
We investigate the capability of wind farm to track a power reference signal to help ensure reliable power grid operations. The wind farm controller is based on a simple dynamic wind farm model and tested using high-fidelity simulations. We find that the dynamic nature of the wind farm model is vital for tracking the power signal, and the controlled wind farm would pass industry performance tests in most cases.
We investigate the capability of wind farm to track a power reference signal to help ensure...
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